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What is a Operating System? Type of Os an Function

What is the Operating System and what does it work for?

As we know that a human being has a heart, the heart of a computer is the operating system.



What is operation system.

The operating system (OS) is a software that acts as an interface between a computer and a user.  This is called system software. 

Operating system is a set of instructions that is stored in a storage device. And it is a group of programs that manage the resources and operations of the computer.

Whenever you use a mobile or computer, you always keep on speaking Android, Windows, Mac, Linux Fruil.  So all those names belong to each operating system.Sometimes Android kitkat, sometimes Android Oreo.

if it is talked about Windows, then someone speaks Windows 10, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows XP etc. The same happens in Mac OS.

Type of operation system

Android

Linux

iPhone

Windows

Macintosh
Unix

iPad

compatible



Types of operating system


1. Batch Operating System

2. Network Operating System

3. Time-Sharing Operating System

4. Distributed Operating System

5. Real-Time Operating System

Batch Operating System

In batch operating systems, users do not interact directly with the computer.  There is an operator in it that makes batches according to the need by grouping one type of jobs.  It is the responsibility of the operator to sort the jobs with different needs and make them in different batches.

Benefits of Batch Operating System


It is very difficult to know how much time it will take to complete a job, only the processors of batch system know how much time it will take to complete the job in line.

Many users can share this system.

Batch system idle time is very short.

This system has the ability to easily manage big things again and again.

Disadvantages of Batch System

There is no direct interaction between the computer and the user.

Computer operators must have very good knowledge about batch systems.

Debugging the Batch system is a huge problem.

It is expensive.

When a job fails once, it has to be lined up again to complete.  It can take a long time to complete.

Network Operating System

These systems work on the server.  Which have the ability to manage data, user, groups, application, security, and all other networking systems.  If you go to any company, you will see a lot of computers there that work as a private network.  All these computers are connected to each other.  And thus they work on top of a server.  In this, you can access file, print, login from any system.

Advantages

Its centralized servers are very stable

All security issues can be managed from the server itself.

Implementation of new updates in all computers is done easily.

You can work remotely from any system to another system with the help of VNC.

Disadvantages

The servers used in it are very expensive.

Centralized system is required for all types of devices.

It is important to have maintenance and up to date regularly.

Time Sharing Operating System


In this way, some time is given to complete each task so that each task can work smoothly.  In this, every user uses a single system, so the CPU is given time.  This system is also called Multitasking System.  The task involved in this can be from single user or even from multi user.

In this, the amount of time it takes to execute each task is called quantum.  After completing each task, it again starts the next task.

Advantages

Every task is given equal chance to complete.

There is little chance of software being duplicated.

CPU idle time can be reduced in this.

Disadvantages

There is a problem of reliability in it.

Everyone has to take care of security and integrity in it.

In this, the problem of data communication is common.

 Examples of time-sharing, operating system are: - Unix


Distributed Operating System


In the world of computer technology, this type of system is an advanced technology.  Which has been started recently.  It has been adopted all over the world and is being used in every corner.

When used as a single system by connecting multiple autonomous independent computers, it is called a distributed operating system.  It is not at all necessary that all the computers should be in one place.  They can also be connected by staying in different places.

You must have heard the LAN and the WAN.  If I do not know, I will tell you.  When many computers are in one place and connected together, it will be called LAN Distributed System.  And when many computers are connected together from different places, it is called a WAN distributed system.

Advtantages:

If a system fails, then there is no difference in the entire network.  All systems are free from each other and are not dependent.

Email increases the speed of data exchange.

Resources are shared which is why work is very fast and best.

It takes very less time to load data.

Reduces data processing delay

Real-Time Operating System

A real time operating system is a data processing system in which the process and response time for an input is very short.  Or simply, we use this type of system to watch any data live from the Internet.  Using this system, a specialist doctor sitting in London performs the operation of a patient in America.  For this, they use robotic hands.  This is possible due to this system

After inputting it, the time till output is called Response time.  These are some examples of using such systems.  Scientific experiments, Medical imaging system, Industrial control system, Weapons system, robot, Air traffic control system etc.

There are 2 types of real-time.


1. Hard Real-Time Systems

This is a system that has a time limit.  The target time given is completed by the same time.  There is no scope for mistake in this. Such a system is used to save life.  Such as parachutes, air bags, medical operation. So now you can understand how strong such systems are.

2. Soft Real-Time Systems

There is no time limit in such systems.  If a task is running then it is taking too much time, then there is no problem in it.  So friends, you have now come to know very well how different operating systems are.  And all the types mentioned are quite important.  To understand how the operating system works, let us now know further some charactristics of the operating system.

What are the functions of the operating system - Function of Os.

Because of this, the pc works but it's also important to understand how it works itself. When the pc starts, from the time the pc is turned off, how can it handle all the work on its own. this is often a matter of consideration. So let's know what are the functions of computer.

  1. Memory management
  2. Processor management
  3. File management
  4. Device management
  5. Security
  6. Control over System Performance
  7. Job Accounting
  8. Error detecting Aids
  9. Coordination between other software and users

Memory Management 


The process of managing primary memory and secondary memory is named memory management. the first memory that we all know as RAM is volatile memory. And anyone who works in documents keeps it temporary store. There are many arrays of words or bits within the main memory, each of which has its own address. the most memory that happens is extremely fast which may be directly accessed from CPU.

once we open a software by double clicking, it must be in memory. Let's take a touch glimpse of what and what works.

It records every step of primary memory. Like what proportion memory is getting used and who is using it. Like if we use chrome, then what proportion memory is it eating also as music player is running, then it'll also use some memory of RAM separately. It shows all this information.

In multi programming, the OS decides which processes to allocate what proportion memory and when.

When different programs are started, the memory for the program is distributed.

When a program is closed, it conserves memory back.

Processor Management

In a multi-programming environment, the operating system decides which process to give to the processor to use, when to deliver and for how long.  This function is also called process scheduling.  It performs the activities below to do process management.

The OS keeps on tracking all the work of the processor and keeps on recording the status of each process.  The people who run this task are called traffic controllers.

It distributes the processor for a process.

When a process stops, it gets it back.

Device Management


You will know that to install every input and output device, you get a driver together.  Before using all these inputs or external devices, we have to install the driver.  If you do not install the driver, then the computer does not recognize that device.  And because of this the device does not work either.

Although drivers in OS up to almost Windows 7 had to be installed for all devices, but in the latest Windows, drivers for very few devices have to be installed.

This device manages communication through its driver.  Let us see how the operating system device management works.

It tracks all devices.  The program it uses to manage devices is called I / O controller.

The OS also decides which processes to deliver to the device when and for how long.  For example, we take the PhotoShop program.  As soon as you click on print to print the photo, the OS printer which is an output device executes it for a while to process it.  When the photo is printed, then it takes the device back.

Uses the device as long as possible, as I mentioned in the above example.

When the device completes the work then it keeps it inactive.

File Management

To make the file easy to use, we create a folder and place it inside it.  This makes us easy to use any file by keeping it in a category wise folder.  We also call Directory itself.

More folders and files are kept inside the folder.  In this way, we know which work OS does more.

It tracks every information.  Along with this, what is the location of the file, when is the file made, how much is the size, which user had created all this information also.  The program that performs all this process is called the file system.

The OS decides who will get the resources.

Distributes the resource among themselves.

Resumes resources when not in use.

 Security

When we use more computers, we wish that only we can use them.  So for this it also gives us security.  We can create users for ourselves and keep it safe by entering password.  And even if there are more than one user, we can also create a personal user for ourselves and use it separately.

It is an advantage that the system is the same, but we can easily keep our personal data hidden, secure and locked.  This operating system gives us all the facilities.

Control over system performance

Sometimes it must have happened to you that you would have tried to start a program and it should have started after a while.  Or it will have to try to store any of its files and it will be processing for a long time.  The OS records delays or delays that occur in all of these performance and also records how long the system reacted to complete a process.

Job accounting

The OS does a lot of work, as well as the work that a user did till the computer shut down after starting.  And it also keeps track of which file has worked.

Error Detecting Aids

While working, it often happens that software and programs hang.  And it also happens that due to some error, the software stops in the middle.  The OS keeps track of all these errors as well.

Coordination Between Other Softwares and Users

The OS creates co-ordination between the programming language that works inside the computer and between the commands and inputs given by the users. As we type "aa", the system understands it according to the code (0,1).  What we have written  After processing it, we understand the programming language and then show it to us through the output device to understand it.  This is the OS that gives the platform to work in the middle for all the performance.

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